the MUSEC briefings and Direct Instruction

Yesterday, I got involved in a discussion on Twitter about Direct Instruction (DI). The discussion was largely about what I had or hadn’t said about DI. Twitter isn’t the best medium for discussing anything remotely complex, but there’s something about DI that brings out the pedant in people, me included.

The discussion, if you can call it that, was triggered by a tweet about the most recent MUSEC briefing. The briefings, from Macquarie University Special Education Centre, are a great idea. A one-page round-up of the evidence relating to a particular mode of teaching or treatment used in special education is exactly the sort of resource I’d use often. So why the discussion about this one?

the MUSEC briefings

I’ve bumped into the briefings before. I read one a couple of years ago on the recommendation of a synthetics phonics advocate. It was briefing no.18, Explicit instruction for students with special learning needs. At the time, I wasn’t aware that ‘explicit instruction’ had any particular significance in education – other than denoting instruction that was explicit. And that could involve anything from a teacher walking round the room checking that students understood what they were doing, to ‘talk and chalk’, reading a book or computer-aided learning. The briefing left me feeling bemused. It was packed with implicit assumptions and the references, presented online presumably for reasons of space, included one self-citation, a report that reached a different conclusion to the briefing, a 400-page book by John Hattie that doesn’t appear to reach the same conclusion either, and a paper by Kirschner Sweller and Clark that doesn’t mention children with special educational needs, The references form a useful reading list for teachers, but hardly constitute robust evidence for support the briefing’s conclusions.

My curiosity piqued, I took a look at another briefing, no.33 on behavioural optometry. I chose it because the SP advocates I’d encountered tended to be sceptical about visual impairments being a causal factor in reading difficulties, and I wondered what evidence they were relying on. I knew a bit about visual problems because of my son’s experiences. The briefing repeatedly lumped together things that should have been kept distinct and came to different conclusions to the evidence it cites. I think I was probably unlucky with these first two because some of the other briefings look fine. So what about the one on Direct Instruction, briefing no.39?

Direct Instruction and Project Follow Through

Direct Instruction (capitalized) is a now commercially available scripted learning programme developed by Siegfried Engelmann and Wesley Becker in the US in the 1960s that performed outstandingly well in Project Follow Through (PFT).

The DI programme involved the scripted teaching of reading, arithmetic, and language to children between kindergarten and third grade. The PFT evaluation of DI showed significant gains in basic skills (word knowledge, spelling, language and math computation); in cognitive-conceptual skills (reading comprehension, math concepts, math problem solving) and in affect measures (co-operation, self-esteem, intellectual achievement, responsibility). A high school follow-up study by the sponsors of the DI programme showed that was associated with positive long-term outcomes.

The Twitter discussion revolved around what I meant by ‘basic’ and ‘skills’. To clarify, as I understand it the DI programme itself involved teaching basic skills (reading, arithmetic, language) to quite young children (K-3). The evaluation assessed basic skills, cognitive-conceptual skills and affect measures. There is no indication in the evidence I’ve been able to access of how sophisticated the cognitive-conceptual skills or affect measures were. One would expect them to be typical of children in the K-3 age range. And we don’t know how long those outcomes persisted. The only evidence for long-term positive outcomes is from a study by the programme sponsors – not to be discounted, but not a reliable enough to form the basis for a pedagogical method.

In other words, the PFT evaluation tells us that there were several robust positive outcomes from the DI programme. What it doesn’t tell us is whether the DI approach has the same robust outcomes if applied to other areas of the curriculum and/or with older children. Because the results of the evaluation are aggregated, it doesn’t tell us whether the DI programme benefitted all children or only some, or if it had any negative effects, or what the outcomes were for children with specific special educational needs or learning difficulties – the focus of MUSEC. Nor does it tell us anything about the use of direct instruction in general – what the briefing describes as a “generic overarching concept, with DI as a more specific exemplar”.

the evidence

The briefing refers to “a large body of research evidence stretching back over four decades testifying to the efficacy of explicit/direct instruction methods including the specific DI programs.” So what is the evidence?

The briefing itself refers only to the PFT evaluation of the DI programme. The references, available online consist of:

• a summary of findings written by the authors of the DI programme, Becker & Engelmann,
• a book about DI – the first two authors were Engelmann’s students and worked on the original DI programme,
• an excerpt from the same book on a commercial site called,
• an editorial from a journal called Effective School Practices, previously known as Direct Instruction News and published by the National Institute for Direct Instruction (Chairman S Engelmann)
• a paper about the different ways in which direct instruction is understood, published by the Center on Innovation and Improvement which is administered by the Academic Development Institute, one of whose partners is Little Planet Learning,
• the 400-page book referenced by briefing 18,
• the peer-reviewed paper also referenced by briefing 18.

The references, which I think most people would construe as evidence, include only one peer-reviewed paper. It cites research findings supporting the use of direct instruction in relation to particular types of material, but doesn’t mention children with special needs or learning difficulties. Another reference is a synthesis of peer-reviewed studies. All the other references involve organisations with a commercial interest in educational methods – not the sort of evidence I’d expect to see in a briefing published by a university.

My recommendation for the MUSEC briefings? Approach with caution.


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