At the beginning of this month, Daisy Christodolou, star performer on University Challenge, CEO of The Curriculum Centre and a governor of the forthcoming Michaela Community School, published a book entitled Seven Myths about Education. Daisy has summarised the myths on her blog, The Wing to Heaven. There are few things I like better than seeing a myth debunked, but I didn’t rush to buy Daisy’s book. In fact I haven’t read it yet. Here’s why.
Debunking educational ‘myths’ is currently in vogue. But some of the debunkers have replaced the existing myths with new myths of their own; kind of second-order myths. The first myth is at least partly wrong, but the alternative proposed isn’t completely right either, which really doesn’t help. I’ve pointed this out previously in relation to ‘neuromyths’. One of the difficulties involved in debunking educational myths is that they are often not totally wrong, but in order to tease out what’s wrong and what’s right, you need to go into considerable detail, and busy teachers are unlikely to have the time or background knowledge to judge whether or not the criticism is valid.
Human beings have accumulated a vast body of knowledge about ourselves and the world we inhabit, which suggests strongly that the world operates according to knowable principles. It’s obviously necessary to be familiar with the structure and content of any particular knowledge domain in order to have a good understanding of it. And I agree with some of Daisy’s criticisms of current approaches to learning. So why do I feel so uneasy about what she’s proposing to put in its place?
Daisy says she makes two claims in her book and presents evidence to support them. The claims and the evidence are:
Claim one: “that in English education, a certain set of ideas about education are predominant…” Daisy points out that it’s difficult to prove or disprove the first claim, but cites a number of sources to support it.
Claim two: “that these ideas are misguided”. Daisy says “Finding the evidence to prove the second point was relatively straightforward” and lists a number of references relating to working and long-term memory.
The responses to claim one suggest that Daisy is probably right that ‘certain ideas’ are predominant in English education.
She is also broadly right when she says “it is scientifically well-established that working memory is limited and that long-term memory plays a significant role in the human intellect” – although she doesn’t define what she means by ‘intellect’.
She then says “this has clear implications for classroom practice, implications which others have made and which I was happy to recap.”
Her reasoning appears to follow that of Kirschner, Sweller & Clark, who lump together ‘constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching’ under the heading ‘minimal instruction’ and treat them all as one. The authors then make the assumption that because some aspects of ‘minimal instruction’ might impose a high cognitive load on students, it should be discarded in favour of ‘direct instruction’ that takes into account the limitations of working memory.
This is the point at which I parted company with Daisy (and Kirschner, Sweller & Clark). Lumping together a set of complex and often loosely defined ideas and approaches to learning is hardly helpful, since it’s possible that some of their components might overload working memory, but others might not. I can see how what we know about working and long-term memory demonstrates that some aspects of the predominant ‘certain set of ideas’ might be ‘misguided’, but not how it demonstrates that they are misguided en masse.
The nature of the evidence
I also had reservations about the evidence Daisy cites in support of claim two.
First on the list is Dan Willingham’s book Why Don’t Students Like School? Willingham is a cognitive psychologist interested in applying scientific findings to education. I haven’t read his book either*, but I’ve yet to come across anything else he’s written that has appeared flawed. Why Don’t Students Like School? appears to be a reliable, accessible book written for a wide readership. So far, so good.
Next, Daisy cites Kirschner, Sweller and Clark’s paper “Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: an analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching”. This paper is obviously harder going than Willingham’s book, but is published in Educational Psychologist, so would be accessible to many teachers. I have several concerns about this paper and have gone through its arguments in detail.
My main reservations are;
• the simplistic way in which the pedagogical debate is presented,
• what’s left out of the discussion
• why a model of memory that’s half a century out of date is referred to.
That last point could apply to the next three items on Daisy’s list; two papers by Herb Simon, a Nobel prizewinner whose ideas have been highly influential in information theory, and one by John Anderson on his Adaptive Character of Thought model. Simon’s papers were published in 1973 and 1980 respectively, and Anderson’s in 1996 although his model dates from the 1970s.
Another feature of these papers is that they’re not easy reading – if you can actually get access to them, that is. Daisy’s links were to more links and I couldn’t get the Simon papers to open. And although Anderson’s paper is entitled ‘A simple theory of complex cognition’, what he means by that is that an apparently complex cognitive process can be explained by a simple information processing heuristic, not that his theory is easy to understand. He and Simon both write lucidly, but their material isn’t straightforward.
I completely agree with Daisy that the fundamentals of a knowledge domain don’t date – as she points out elsewhere, Pythagoras and Euripides have both stood the test of time. There’s no question that Simon’s and Anderson’s papers are key ones – for information scientists at least – and that the principles they set out have stood the test of time too. But quite why she should cite them and not more accessible material that takes into account several further decades of research into brain function, is puzzling.
It could be that there simply aren’t any publications that deal specifically with recent findings about memory and apply them to pedagogy. But even if there aren’t, it’s unlikely that most teachers would find Simon and Anderson the most accessible alternatives; for example Rita Carter’s Mapping the Mind is a beautifully illustrated, very informative description of how the brain works. (It’s worth forking out for the University of California Press edition because of the quality of the illustrations). Stanislas Dehaene’s Reading in the Brain is about reading, but is more recent and explains in more detail how the brain chunks, stores and accesses information.
It looks to me as if someone has given Daisy some key early references about working memory and she’s dutifully cited them, rather than ensuring that she has a thorough grasp of the knowledge domain of which they are part. If that’s true, it’s ironic, because having a thorough grasp of a knowledge domain is something Daisy advocates.
So Daisy’s logic is a bit flaky and her evidence base is a bit out of date. So what? The reason Daisy’s logic and evidence base are important because they form the foundation for an alternative curriculum being used by a chain of academies and a high-profile free school.
Implications for curriculum design
Daisy’s name doesn’t appear in the ‘who we are’ or ‘our advisors’ sections of The Curriculum Centre’s (supporting Future Academies) website, although their blog refers to her as their CEO. That might indicate the site simply needs updating. But disappointingly for an organisation describing itself as The Curriculum Centre their ‘complete offer – The Future Curriculum™ – is described as ‘information coming soon’, and the page about the three year KS2 curriculum is high on criticism of other approaches but low on information about itself.
Daisy is also ‘governor for knowledge’ at the Michaela Community School (headteacher Katherine Birbalsingh), a free school that’s already attracted press criticism even though it doesn’t open until September. Their curriculum page is a bit more detailed than that of The Curriculum Centre, but has some emphases that aren’t self-evident and aren’t explained, such as:
“Our emphasis on traditional academic subjects will provide a solid base on which young people can build further skills and future careers, thus enabling them to grow into thinkers, authors, leaders, orators or whatever else they wish.”
One has to wonder why the ‘traditional academic subjects’ don’t appear to be preparing pupils for careers with a more practical bent, such as doctors, economists or engineers.
“Michaela recognises that English and Maths are fundamental to all other learning.”
No, they’re not. They are useful tools in accessing other learning, but non-English speakers who aren’t good at maths can be still be extremely knowledgeable.
“Michaela Community School will teach knowledge sequentially so that the entire body of knowledge for a subject will be coherent and meaningful. The History curriculum will follow a chronological sequence of events. The English curriculum will follow a similar chronology of the history of literature, and will also build up knowledge of grammar and the parts of speech.”
The rationale for teaching history chronologically is obvious, but history is more than a sequence of events, and it’s not clear why it’s framed in that way. Nor is there an explanation for why literature should be taught chronologically. Nor why other subjects shouldn’t be. As it happens, I’m strongly in favour of structuring the curriculum chronologically, but I know from experience it’s impossible to teach English, Maths, Science, History, Geography, a modern foreign language (French/Spanish), Music and Art chronologically and in parallel because your chronology will be out of synch across the different subject areas. I’ve used a chronological curriculum with my own children and it gave them an excellent understanding of how everything connects. We started with the Big Bang and worked forward from there. But it meant that for about a year our core focus was on physics, chemistry and geography because for much of the earth’s history nothing else existed. I don’t get the impression Michaela or the Curriculum Centre have actually thought through curriculum development from first principles.
Then there was:
“The Humanities curriculum at Michaela Community School will develop a chronologically secure knowledge and understanding of British, local and world history and introduce students to the origins and evolution of the major world religions and their enduring influence.”
I couldn’t help wondering why ‘British’ came before local and world history. And why highlight religions and ‘their enduring influence’? It could be that the curriculum section doesn’t summarise the curriculum very well, or it could be that there’s an agenda here that isn’t being made explicit.
I’m not convinced that Daisy has properly understood how human memory works, has used what’s been scientifically established about it to debunk any educational myths, or has thoroughly thought through its implications for classroom practice. Sorry, Daisy, but I think you need to have another go.
Carter, R (2010). Mapping the Mind. University of California Press.
Dehaene, S (2010). Reading in the Brain. Penguin.
Willingham, DT (2010). Why Don’t Students Like School? Jossey Bass.
* My bookshelves are groaning under the weight of books I’ve bought solely for the purpose of satisfying people who’ve told me I can’t criticise what someone’s saying until I’ve read their book. Very occasionally I come across a gem. More often than not, one can read between the lines of reviews.